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EU Aquaculture Assistance Mechanism

Background information

Type of species farmed (Source: 2023, EUMOFA; 2022 STECF) 

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), Silver carp (Hypothalmichthys molitrix), Big Head Carp (Hypothalmichthys nobilis) Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), predators fish as pike (Esox Lucius). pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) and European catfish (Silurus glanis).

Type of production method (Source: 2023, EUMOFA) 

According to Eurostat, aquaculture activity in Czechia is limited to freshwater farming. Production mainly occurs in ponds (95%) and small quantities on tanks and raceways (4%). A marginal production is carried out through recirculation systems and with other methods (1%).

Sector’s size (production and consumption) (Source: 2023, EUMOFA) 

  • Production (2021): 20.991Tn; 44.561 thousand €. 
  • Consumption of fishery and aquaculture products (2021): 10,04Kg per capita (2023, EUMOFA) 
  • % Variation in consumption 2021/2020:  4% 

Trends (past and future) (Source: MNSPA) 

  • Enhancing the importance of traditional and also modern forms of aquaculture. 
  • Maintaining and developing traditional aquaculture production through the modernisation and innovation of existing technologies and farming facilities, including preserving the environmental benefits of fish farming. 
  • Increasing the production of other fish species, in particular predatory fish, through the creation of new, modern and environmentally friendly fish farms. 
  • Increasing the range of processed freshwater fish for the Czech market, modernisation, innovation and concentration of processing capacity. 
  • Supporting the growth and development of RAS technologies, creating conditions for investors from the agriculture and food industry, using waste heat from biogas installations. 
  • Modernisation, innovation and concentration of processing capacity, support for new processing plants (e.g. redfish =clarias and nil tilapia), cooperation with scientific research institutes, promotion of products to the public.

Impact of aquaculture in the country’s economy, food market and labour market (Source: MNSPA) 

  • The overall economic situation of the aquaculture sector is sufficient for the sector to function in a relatively sustainable way. 
  • The dominant use of domestic production is live fish exports, which gradually increased from 40 % to 50 %.  
  • In Europe, the Czech Republic has no competition in the export of freshwater fish. The proportion of fresh fish increased significantly, mainly to the detriment of processed fish. An important economic element of Czech production fisheries is the export of live fish, in particular carp. Carp is a regional food for central Europe. It is mainly exported to neighbouring countries and partly to France, Belgium and Italy. The quantity of carp exported to Germany and Slovakia has been declining for a long time. While the situation of exports to Poland is very variable. The specificity of this market is the requirement for a lightly lysed fish (1.2 to 1.8 kg), which is less well placed elsewhere in Europe. Livestock farmers have adapted their stock plans to meet the needs of the Polish market. 
  • The consumption of fish in the Czech Republic is very low (2021: 5.6 kg/per capita/year) and compared to the world average (20.2 kg per person per year) or the EU average (25.1 kg per person per year). The important factor affecting the low consumption of fish is the small share of processed fish on the domestic market. Customers prefer to buy live fish, which is guaranteed fresh and most cost-effective. 
  • The specific segment of the market is the production of Ornamental forms of fish, gold carcass, koi carp, coloured forms of the crash, common helmets, large monks, pearl pears, etc.  
  • The dominant carp preference, in particular during Christmas, has been very slowly abandoned and people are starting to gradually prefer fish processed, especially during the year. 
  • The marketing of fish is even more pronounced in the spring months following the spring harvesting of chamber ponds. These sales generate ongoing funding and improve cash flow. The marketing of fish from flow systems and RAS takes place on a more or less continuous basis throughout the year. 
  • The Czech production market faces a deepening of professionalisation in the areas of cash-flow management, traffic economy, marketing communication (especially in the online environment) and customer relations management. On the contrary, it has expertise in fish farming and a high-quality background in universities. The price of freshwater fish is influenced by prices of imported competing products, costs of farming, fish species and processing. The traffic economy, coupled with economies of scale and high-quality know-how, has a positive impact on price reductions. Merging/associating into sales/distribution and processing cooperatives can also help increase efficiency. 

Challenges and opportunities (Source: MNSPA) 


  • Income diversification – complementing the production function with secondary activities (fishing tourism, eco-tourism, etc.) and promoting them. 
  • Investment policy aimed at the construction and renewal of fishponds, fish-farming and processing facilities, technological innovation, promotion of competitiveness and resilience of fishing enterprises. 
  • Strengthening the competitiveness of businesses through compensation for non-productive functions and compensation for damage caused by fish predators, sound forms of farming. 
  • Developing fish production in a controlled environment including recirculation systems. 
  • Creation of producer organisations. 
  • Exploiting the current low consumption, growing purchasing power and the trend towards healthy lifestyles to increase demand for freshwater fish products, with an emphasis on quality and simplicity. 
  • Equalisation and increase in consumption of domestic freshwater fish throughout the year. 
  • Distribution of processed fish through business chains and business outlets of high quality and range, mainly as fresh/chilled fish and products. 
  • Promotion of small-scale sales of fish and fish products. 
  • Introduction of new products from fish with high added value (e.g., bottled products). 
  • Use of technologies that reduce negative impacts on the environment. 
  • Raising attractiveness and awareness of aquaculture and its products, as well as information on the environmental benefits of freshwater aquaculture. 
  • Cooperation with scientific institutions, the promotion of education, science and research in the field of fisheries, innovation and the introduction of new technologies, research and the application of its results, in particular in the fields of: 
  • (1) on the management of fishponds in the light of climate change and the implementation of results in fishing enterprises. 
  • (2) on fish management and innovation in fish farming, processing and marketing. 
  • (3) on diseases and the prevention of genetic erosion of populations of native fish species (good techniques for the introduction of eggs and juvenile stages of fish) 
  • (4) on effective artificial reproduction and rearing of early stages of eel. 
  • Improving the traceability of aquaculture products. 
  • Further building business resilience to global change. 
  • Deepening cooperation with nature conservation authorities (relationship between economic and nature conservation interests). 


  • Threats to traditional production resources due to climate change and the negative effects of selected organisms. 
  • The maintenance of traditional aquaculture, which performs in particular production but also non-productive functions. 
  • Low diversification of producers’ business activities and reduced capacity to compensate for fluctuations in production and marketing. 
  • The high dependence of domestic production on traditional forms of farming and the low share of recirculation facilities on production. 
  • Low freshwater fish consumption. 
  • Low consumer awareness of the benefits of consuming domestically produced fish. 
  • High export dependency of domestic production. 
  • Low volume of further processed production and consumption of processed products with higher added value. 
  • The high administrative burden on producers in the legislative field and in obtaining subsidy and compensation payments. 
  • High administrative burden and highly complicated process of building new ponds. 
  • Low vertical and horizontal integration and producer and market organisations. 
  • Threats to the biological diversity of native fish species and other water-bound organisms. 
  • Lower levels of innovation compared to competing sectors.

Employment and number of enterprises (Source: MNSPA) 

413 aquaculture production businesses

MNSP to develop sustainable aquaculture

Published National Strategic Plan on Aquaculture: Multiannual National Strategic Plan for aquaculture for the years 2021 TO 2030 (in Czech)

Summary in English of the "Published National Strategic Plan on Aquaculture": Multiannual National Strategic Plan for Aquaculture for the years 2021 to 2030

Applicable Legislation

National associations and networks

Contact Details

Name and surname: Mr. Petr Chalupa 

Position held and name of the organisation: Head of fisheries and beekeeping unit 

Email address:  

Telephone number: +420 221 812 575 


Summary in English of the "Published National Strategic Plan on Aquaculture" for the Czech Republic
(489.93 KB - PDF)