Skip to main content
European Commission logo
EU Aquaculture Assistance Mechanism

Background information

Type of species farmed (Source: 2022, NIFRI – National Inland Fisheries Research Institute in Olsztyn) 

Top 5 type of species farmed in 2021 (in order of production value): Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Char (Salvenilus spp.), Sturgeon (Acipenser spp.), Salmon (Salmo salar). 

Type of production method (Source: 2022, NIFRI) 

Aquaculture activity in Poland is limited to freshwater farming. The following main production methods were used in 2021: 

 ▪ 45,8% of production: in ponds. 

 ▪ 44,5% of production: in tanks and raceways. 

 ▪ 6,4% of production: in recirculation systems. 

 ▪ 3,4% of production: enclosures and pens;

Sector’s size (production and consumption) (Source: 2022, NIFRI; 2023, EUMOFA) 

  • Production: 39.610 Tn; 123.542 thousand € (2022, NIFRI) 
  • Consumption of fishery and aquaculture products (2021): 14,26 Kg per capita. 
  • % Variation in volume 2021/2020: 7% (2023, EUMOFA) 

Impact of aquaculture in the country’s economy, food market and labour market (Source: 2022, NIFRI, EuroFish) 

  • The Polish aquaculture sector has a long history, with the first records of activity dating to the 12th century (Source: EuroFish). During the five years from 2016 to 2020 production increased every year and aquaculture sector has been showing a 5.6% average annual growth. However, in 2021 production decreased to the level recorded in 2019. In terms of volume, the biggest category is trout production, which annually provides almost half of the country’s total aquaculture output, with rainbow trout dominating. Carp, mainly common carp, are the second largest group. Compared to carp, rainbow trout farming is a rather new sector, which developed in the 20th century, and the production began to reach considerable commercial volumes at the end of the 1990s. 
  • There is a growing awareness among Polish consumers regarding fish and seafood consumption. They are choosing fish products with more care and attention, getting information about products, and are influenced by campaigns promoting consumption and the health benefits of fish and seafood. Rising health awareness is thought to be the most popular reason for rising fish consumption. In recent years, Poland has observed a dynamic development of sushi bars and restaurants, including major sushi bar chains.

Challenges and opportunities (Sources: EuroFish & MNSPA) 


  • Increasing aquaculture production to contribute to sustainable employment and environmental protection. 
  • The fragmentation of the aquaculture sector, coupled with increasing competitive pressure (and efforts to take over functions in processing and trade), enhances the role of joint initiatives and activities (horizontal integration processes) in the cooperative or producer group format. 
  • Preparing the sector for climate change by drawing up industry plans that take into account the specificities of the different types of domestic aquaculture production and by drawing up and implementing good practices in response to climate change and practices relating to the welfare of farmed fish. 
  • Continuous support is needed for the development of knowledge on inland waters, fish habitats and conditions, maintenance and restoration, as well as spatial planning of areas dependent on aquaculture. 
  • Effective implementation of public tasks relating to compliance with food security requirements requires strengthening the coordination and management of policies and increasing the efficiency of risk monitoring processes in the aquaculture sector. 
  • Aquaculture development needs to ensure access to space and water through appropriate cooperation between state administrations responsible for authorising the use of waters for aquaculture purposes and authorities responsible for the enforcement of environmental or spatial planning legislation. 
  • Streamline the rules in order to minimise the administrative burden. 
  • Limited water resources, deteriorating water relations and temporal excess and scarcity of water, insufficient water management, low retention capacity (surface reservoirs and soils) and underestimation of the role of aquaculture (earth bases) in water retention from precipitation and surface run-off. 
  • Increasing levels of epizootic risk and difficulties in rebuilding the production base after epizootic phenomena. 
  • Insufficiently widespread solutions for risk and crisis prevention and insufficiently widespread circular economy solutions. 
  • Monitor and introduce a system of incentives to remain in the profession. 
  • Building a legal environment to support aquaculture investment processes and the transfer of technology from other sectors of the economy in order to build resource-efficient aquaculture. 
  • A system of subsidies or compensation for traditional and environmentally friendly farming methods, including measures and treatments that contribute to maintaining biodiversity and maintaining existing water relations. 
  • Promoting the consumption of freshwater fish from indigenous farms as healthy food and the consumption of artisanal products. 
  • Building a positive image of aquaculture products in society. 
  • Simplifying the administrative procedures. 


  • Technological revolution in aquaculture. Its main area is the creation and implementation of productive and environmentally friendly, water-efficient innovations, the rapid development of science and research, the use of satellite data, genetics (in fish farming and restoration) and the computerisation of economic processes. 
  • The importance and societal expectations of protecting environmental resources (water, biodiversity) are growing. These trends reinforce the multifunctional nature of the aquaculture sector — in particular extensive aquaculture, while making its competitiveness increasingly dependent on non-market revenues. 
  • Climate change is becoming increasingly visible, leading to resource constraints and threats to biological sustainability. There are opportunities in Poland for the development of new technologies such as hydroponic or integrated technologies (e.g.: Breeds + hydroponics). 
  • Research and innovation that can contribute to the further development of aquaculture production and the promotion of aquaculture products as sustainable food products. 
  • The increase in national demand for aquaculture products as a result of the reduction in catches of marine fish. 
  • The existence of technology for conducting aquaculture production that is decoupled from surface waters (advanced RAS facilities). 
  • The high innovation potential of research centres to reduce production costs, including through advisory services in the fields of marketing, economics and business. 
  • The growing demand for energy and the development of technologies for the use of renewable energy sources and for circular economies. 
  • The development potential of the use of digital technologies and the automation of work.

Employment and number of enterprises (Source: 2022, NIFRI) 

1269 enterprises and 6403 employees in 2021 

MNSP to develop sustainable aquaculture

Published National Strategic Plan on Aquaculture: Strategic plan for the development of fish farming in Poland in the period 2021-2027 (in Polish)

Summary in English of the "Published National Strategic Plan on Aquaculture": Strategic Plan for the development of Fish Farming in Poland for 2021-2027

Applicable Procedures

Water permit 

Relevant Websites

Contact Details

Name and surname: Piotr Słowik 

Position held and name of the organisation: Inland Fisheries, Fish Market and Fish Processing Unit 
Department of Fisheries - Ministry of Agriculture and rural Development  

Email address:;  

Telephone number: +48 22 623 29 72 


Summary in English of the "Published National Strategic Plan on Aquaculture" for Poland
(447.46 KB - PDF)